The answer is the third option. One can be responsible for many.
A good example to illustrate this case is the introduction of resistance genes into bacterial DNA.
If, initially, we have a bacteria sensitive to a given antibiotic, and we transfer to him a gene that will allow it to resist this antibiotic with the help of other bacteria by means of plasmid, the bacterium will acquire resistance against this antibiotic. antibiotic and its phenotype will be changed in the antibiogram.
The protein encoded by the gene will block the activity of the antibiotic, it may be an enzyme that will lyse the antibiotic or a pore that will reject the antibiotic molecule to the outside of the cell ...
D. A change to one amino acid in a protein may cause a significant change in phenotype.
d. demonstrates that heritable genotypic differences can influence the phenotypic differences observed among individuals in a population
Artificial selection is a process that aims at identifying desirable traits in animals and plants in order to perpetuate them. In artificial selection, breeders choose individuals that exhibit desired phenotypic traits for breeding, thereby shaping evolution by driving genotypic variation. A phenotype can be the result of genetic factors, environmental conditions, as well as a combination of both. In consequence, during artificial selection, higher response to selection may be attributed to a better correlation between a genotype and its phenotype.
Different cell types are specialized to respond to signals in different ways regardless of the receptor because the intracellular signals produced are interpreted differently in cells specialized for different functions.
Different cells types with the same kind of receptor for signals can induce different phenotypes due to difference in the intracellular responses produced by the cell types because of the difference in functions performed by the cells. For example, acetylcholine binds to similar receptors in different cell types but illicit different response in them. Acetylcholine signals in heart muscle cells cause reduction in the rate and force of contraction of the heart; also acetylcholine cause secretion in the salivary gland cells; also contraction upon introduction into the skeletal muscle cells despite binding to similar receptors in all the cell types mentioned. The response produced are as a result of the different specialized functions performed by those cell types not minding the receptor component and its foreknown action.
It is possible since a receptor can activate different signaling pathways in different cell types
In a cell, a receptor bind to a specific ligand to activate a signaling pathway, while the same receptor may bind either with the same or another ligand in another cell type and thus activate another signaling pathway
The correct answer is D a change to one amino acid in a protein may cause a significant change in the phenotype.
Sickle cell anemia is caused by the replacement of 6th amino acid in the beta chain of hemoglobin that is glutamic acid by valine.
glutamic acid is a hydrophilic amino acid that is being replaced by a hydrophobic amino acid known as valine.
As a result the red blood cells appear as insoluble aggregates which which ultimately result in the sickling of Red blood cells.That"s why this disease is named as sickle cell anemia.
The correct answer will be option-B
Dominance is the phenomenon observed in the genes coding for a trait in which the one variant of a gene called allele masks the effect of a complementary allele at same locus coding for the same trait.
The concept of dominance was observed by Gregor Mendel during his experiments on Pea related to study the inheritance pattern.
Since in dominance, one allele masks the effect of complementary allele therefore the dominant allele shows its effect and different genotypes produce the same phenotype.
Thus, Option-B is the correct answer
The genotype describes the complete set of genes inherited by an individual, and the phenotype describes all aspects of the individual's morphology, physiology, behavior, and ecological relations. Light, water, temperature, soil structure are the environmental factors which influence the plant phenotype most. The growth is a very sensitive phenotypic trait that quickly responds to any sub-optimal environment. However, many more physiological responses occur that turn out in phenotypes that can be measured with non-invasive technology.